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邹 恒 甫 (Zou Heng-fu),新中国首位进入哈佛大学经济系并获得经济学博士学位的中国大陆学生。中央财经大学中国经济与管理研究院和中国高等研究院院长武汉大学IAS主任北京大学经济学一级教授董辅礽讲座教授深圳大学高等研究院名誉院长哈工大深圳分院訪問教授北京师范大学兼职教授复旦大学数理经济学名誉班长浙江大学数理经济学顾问班长中山大学岭南学院岭南讲座教授中国科技大学数理经济学联合班长中南财经政法大学兼职教授世界银行发展研究院研究员 1962年生于湖南省华容县,1999年至今为国家教育部社会科学跨世纪人才,2005年入选首批人文社会科学长江学者讲座教授,1998年-2001年、2002年-2005年国家自然科学基金委员会杰出青年基金获得者, 2009年入选中组部千人计划。-----------恒甫学社 Zouhengfu@gmail.com

Duomo di Milano (Milan Cathedral),

分类:人文社科 | 标签: Duomo 
2008-02-26 14:21 阅读(?)评论(0)

Duomo di Milano (Milan Cathedral), Milan

"What a wonder it is! So grand, so solemn, so vast! And yet so delicate, so airy, so graceful!" --Mark Twain


The Duomo and an equestrian statue at sunset. Photo by Gianni D.


The Duomo in all its pointy, Gothic glory by night. Photo by waldopepper.

Milan Duomo
Il Duomo at Christmas 2001, before renovations. Photo © Angelo Cesare.

Milan Duomo in HDR
East side of the Duomo, with choir windows. Photo by Ben Zibble.

Milan Duomo under renovations  
Facade in September 2004 and facade as of July 2006. Left photo by the
disappointed author; right photo by Ben Zibble.


Roof of Milan Cathedral
Strolling on the roof of the second-largest Catholic cathedral in the world.
Photo by Dirk Huijssoon.


Milan Duomo interior
A view down Duomo's huge nave. Photo by Ben Zibble.


Great pillars, side aisle and side altar. Photo by Ben Zibble.


View of the choir. Photo by Dave Chiu.

Milan Duomo stained glass window
Choir window. Photo by Dysanovic.


The Duomo di Milano is one of the most famous buildings in Europe. It is a particularly large and elaborate Gothic cathedral on the main square in the city center of Milan, Italy. It is also the second largest Roman Catholic cathedral in the world.

History of the Duomo

The street plan of Milan, with streets either radiating from the Duomo or circling it, indicates that the Duomo occupied the most important site in Roman Mediolanum.

Saint Ambrose's "New Basilica" was built on this site at the beginning of the 5th century, with an adjoining basilica added in 836. When fire damaged both buildings in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo.

In 1386 the archbishop, Antonio da Saluzzo, began the new project in a rayonnant Late Gothic style that is more characteristic of France than Italy. Work proceeded for generations.

The main spire was topped off in 1762 with a polychrome statue of the Madonna, to whom the Duomo and its predecessor have always been consecrated.

Even now, some uncarved blocks remain to be completed as statuary. Gothic construction on the rest of the Duomo was largely complete in the 1880s.

The Duomo has been under major renovations and cleaning for several years, obscuring the glorious facade with scaffolding. Works should be completed sometime in 2007.

Exploring Milan's Duomo

Milan's Duomo is the second largest Catholic cathedral in the world: only the cathedral of Seville is larger (St. Peter's Basilica in Rome doesn't count because it's not a cathedral). It is 157 meters long— 40,000 people can fit comfortably within.

The Duomo of Milan blurs the normal distinctions between Gothic and neo-Gothic, for the Gothic west front was begun in 1616 and completed 200 years later. Only in its details does it reveal its Baroque and Neo-Classical date. From 1900 some of the least Gothic details of the facade were replaced in a more Gothic style to designs of Giuseppe Brentano.

The roofline dissolves into openwork pinnacles that are punctuated by a grove of spires, topped with statues that overlook the city. The main spire is 109 meters high. These can all be investigated up close on a breathtaking walk on the roof.

The huge building is made of brick faced with marble from the quarries that Gian Galeazzo Visconti donated in perpetuity to the cathedral chapter. Its maintenance and repairs are complex.

The cathedral's five wide naves are reflected in the hierarchic openings of the facade. Even the transepts have aisles. The great windows of the choir are reputed to be the largest in the world.

The Duomo also contians many treasures that can be viewed by visitors, including ivories, sacred vases in gold and silver, vestments and tapestries, most of which have been denoted by noblemen and princes over the centuries.

Mark Twain, a greast fan of the Duomo, can take over the description (from Innocents Abroad) from here:

What a wonder it is! So grand, so solemn, so vast! And yet so delicate, so airy, so graceful! A very world of solid weight, and yet it seems ...a delusion of frostwork that might vanish with a breath!...

The central one of its five great doors is bordered with a bas-relief of birds and fruits and beasts and insects, which have been so ingeniously carved out of the marble that they seem like living creatures-- and the figures are so numerous and the design so complex, that one might study it a week without exhausting its interest...everywhere that a niche or a perch can be found about the enormous building, from summit to base, there is a marble statue, and every statue is a study in itself...

Away above, on the lofty roof, rank on rank of carved and fretted spires spring high in the air, and through their rich tracery one sees the sky beyond. ...(Up on) the roof...springing from its broad marble flagstones, were the long files of spires, looking very tall close at hand, but diminishing in the distance...We could see, now, that the statue on the top of each was the size of a large man, though they all looked like dolls from the street...

They say that the Cathedral of Milan is second only to St. Peter's at Rome. I cannot understand how it can be second to anything made by human hands.


 

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